With the coalition forces under daily attack and billions being spent to rebuild Iraq, shouldn't Mr. Bush have been more conciliatory in an effort to get other countries to send troops? Bush was right to refuse a rushed transfer of sovereignty to an interim Iraqi government as the price to pay for greater international participation in the postwar effort. The reconstruction of Iraq is a two-track process:
Democratization in Iraq by Kate Lotz and Tim Melvin an authoritarian political culture and no history of democratic institutions. This article presents a counter- branches of government for Iraq, the type of elections that Iraqi's should use, . The Failure of Democracy in Iraq studies democratization in post Iraq that has so far failed due mainly to cultural and religious reasons. There are other factors, such as legacy of the dictatorial regime, exclusionary policies, stateness problem,. Iraq: Unintended Consequences and Lessons for U.S. Policy Richard E. Pates June 16, During that visit, I had a brief, yet startling, introduction to the country in the aftermath of.
Midhat was one of the chief architects of the Ottoman Vilayet Law ofand he had applied it with great success to a vilayet elsewhere in the empire before arriving in Baghdad in with a handpicked corps of advisers and assistants.
Midhat transformed the face of Baghdad by ordering the demolition of a section of the old city wall to allow room for rational urban expansion. Municipalities and administrative councils were established in accordance with the new vilayet regulations, and military conscription was enforced.
His objectives were to pacify and settle the tribes, encourage cultivation, and improve tax collection. However, the traditional system of tribal and communal landholding and the fear that land registration would lead to greater government control, heavier tax burdens, and extension of military conscription to the tribal areas—combined with inefficient and inequitable administration—limited the effectiveness of the reform and produced unintended results.
Most land was registered not in the names of individual peasants and tribesmen but rather in the names of tribal sheikhs, urban-based merchants, and former tax farmers. Some tribal leaders became landlords, which tied them more closely to the Ottoman administration and widened the gap between them and their tribesmen.
Other sheikhs refused to cooperate.
His success in the latter effort was ephemeralas were many of the projects begun by Midhat. Nevertheless, his brief rule set in motion developments that profoundly changed virtually every aspect of life in Iraq and tied it more closely to Istanbul than ever before. The end of Ottoman rule In the last decades of Ottoman rule, changes in administrative boundaries once more split Ottoman Iraq into three parts.
In spite of the European commercial and consular presence in Iraq, it remained more isolated from European influences than the Arab lands adjacent to the Mediterranean. Iraq had relatively few Christians, and those few had had little exposure to foreign ideas. The prosperous Jewish community usually avoided politics but tended to be favourably disposed toward the Ottoman government.
Finally, a great majority of the population was illiterate. Thus, it is hardly surprising that Arab nationalism had made little impact on Iraq before World War I. In Syria, Arab nationalist and separatist organizations appeared after the Young Turk Revolution of It was the British, whose interests in the Persian Gulf and the Tigris-Euphrates region had grown steadily since the late 18th century, who ultimately brought an end to the Ottoman presence in Iraq.
In the years just before World War I, the close ties between the governments of the kaiser in Berlin and the Young Turks in Istanbul were particularly troublesome to Great Britain.
When Germany was awarded a concession to extend its railway line through Anatolia to Baghdad and acquired mineral rights to the land on both sides of the proposed route, heightened fear of German competition in Iraq and the Persian Gulf evoked strong protests from London.
Soon afterward, the Anglo-Persian Oil Company later the British Petroleum Company PLC began production on the Iranian side of the gulf, and there were indications that oil might be found elsewhere in the area. In a group representing British, German, and Dutch interests formed the Turkish Petroleum Company, which, on the eve of the war, was given a concession to explore for oil in the vilayets of Mosul and Baghdad.
A convention between Britain and the Ottoman Empire acknowledging British protection of Kuwait was concluded in but was never ratified. In view of these developments and because they feared that the Germans might persuade the Ottomans to undertake military action against them, the British had already made plans to send an expedition from India to protect their interests in the Persian Gulf before the Ottoman Empire entered the war in early November An administration staffed largely by British and Indian officials replaced the Ottoman provincial government in occupied Iraq, but Mosul remained in Ottoman hands until after the Armistice of Mudros October 30,which brought an end to the war in the Middle East.
Under the Treaty of LausanneTurkey the successor to the Ottoman Empire gave up all claims to its former Arab provinces, including Iraq. Action undertaken by the British military authorities during the war and the upsurge of nationalism afterward helped determine the shape of the new Iraqi state and the course of events during the postwar years until Iraq finally emerged as an independent political entity in British control of Iraq, however, was short-lived.
After the war Britain debated both its general policy in Iraq and the specific type of administration to establish. Two schools of thought influenced policy makers in London. The first, advocated by the Colonial Office, stressed a policy of direct control to protect British interests in the Persian Gulf and India.
Assessing British policy from India, this school may be called the Indian school of thought. The other school, hoping to conciliate Arab nationalists, advised indirect control. In Iraq itself British authorities were divided on the issue.
Some, under the influence of Sir Arnold Wilson, the acting civil commissioner, advocated direct control; others, alarmed by growing dissatisfaction with the British administration, advised indirect control and suggested the establishment of an indigenous regime under British supervision.
Britain was still undecided on which policy it should follow in when events in other Arab countries radically changed conditions in Iraq.
Under the influence of nationalist activities in Syrianationalist agitation followed first in northern Iraq and then in the tribal areas of the middle Euphrates.
Although the revolt in Iraq was suppressed by force, it prompted Iraq and Great Britain to reconcile their differences. In Iraq the nationalists were demanding independence.
He also suggested the replacement of the mandate by a treaty of alliance.Democracy in Washington DC, President Bush said, ‘the establishment of a free Iraq at the heart of the Middle East will be a watershed event in the global democratic revolution’. 6 Indeed it may be, but the failure of this policy would be.
Iraq - Government and society: From to Iraq was ruled by the Baʿth (Arabic: “Renaissance”) Party. Under a provisional constitution adopted by the party in , Iraq was confirmed as a republic, with legislative power theoretically vested in an elected legislature but also in the party-run Revolutionary Command Council (RCC), without .
The most dramatic and far-reaching changes in Iraq are associated with the introduction of the new Ottoman provincial system and the governorship of Midhat Paşa (–72). Midhat was one of the chief architects of the Ottoman Vilayet Law of , and he had applied it with great success to a.
Fourth, they insist that the transition to democracy in Iraq would be too perilous and the resulting government too weak; thus, the institutionalization of democracy, particularly a federal . May 02, · On October 3, , Rep. Ron Paul (R-TX) submitted to the House International Relations committee a proposed declaration which read, "A state of war is declared to exist between the United States and the government of Iraq.".
|Kurdistan Democratic Party - Wikipedia||I think the US government is running scared for another reason. I know that the ties have been improving between Baghdad and Tehran over the last year or so:|
Democratization in Iraq by Kate Lotz and Tim Melvin an authoritarian political culture and no history of democratic institutions. This article presents a counter- branches of government for Iraq, the type of elections that Iraqi's should use, .