Tina Clark-jackson Tina Clark Comm.
Selznick, Philip, "Guiding Principles and Interpretation: UC Berkeley Press, The book is about a portion of the history of the Tennessee Valley Authority, and the interactions of this big organization. Sociological Directives The "frame of reference" that Selznick uses in this analysis is: Formal organizations are shaped by forces separate from the stated structure and goals of the group.
Each person in the organization functions as a "whole", with actions and alliances separate from the formal organization. The organization also is affected by the environment. In total, "the organization is an adaptive social structure", facing problems independent of it's creation.
Informal stuctures and communication lines will develop from the actions of individuals to "control the conditions of their existance".
The socilogist often will "search out the evolution of formal relations out of the informal ones".
The informal system is "indispensable" for the formal control and delegation structure. Leadership uses the informal system, but at a price changed power distribution ,etc.
Every adaptive structure evolves to meets it's basic needs for survival, and develops methods of self-defense. The organization strives for security and stability of formal and informal relations.
This type of analysis relatively ignores the external progress of the organization and focuses on how this progress decisions affect the internal organization. This analysis focuses "on the structural conditions which influence behavior", and emphasizes constraints, which makes the whole thing a bit pessimistic.
The tensions and dillemmas caused by structural constraints are highlighted producing more of an expose. Unanticipated Consequences of Organized Action The researcher in this type of study must focus on just a few aspects of how policies affect the internal organization, and must ignore many other issues or explanations.
To properly analyze the situation, he must focus on those environmental effects from policy that affect the organization, and ignore the other effects the policy may have.
Unintended consequences of "purposeful action" are particularily interesting to the sociologist, because they often point to underlying social forces and informal structures within the organization.
There are two main sources for these actions: The limiting function of the "end-in-view". Anytime you focus intently on the goals, you may miss some unexpected consequences. This isn't the most interesting for the sociologist. Commitment as a basic mechanism in the generation of unanticipated consequences.
Any commitments goals made by the organization serve to limit the freedom of actions. But commiments are maintained through the actions of "self-activating and recalcitrant" people, resulting in unintended consequences.
Different types of commitment can imply different unintended actions: Commitments enforces by uniquely organizational imperatives. Organizations need to develop discipline, unity, defense and consent to survive.
Often in the pursuit of unity special needs of one subunit are extended to the organization as a whole, producing many unintended consequences.
Commitments enforced by the social character of the personnel. People tend to be resistant to changes against their traditional views and habits, and employers may have to conform to these views or will face unintended consequences.
Commitments enforced by institutionalization. Some policies become so ingrained in the organization that they may become ends in themselves, causing unintended consequences.
Commitments enforced by social and cultural environment. The outside environment other institutions, changes in public opinion can have large unintended consequences if not anticipated.Tina Clark Comm 03/25/ Chapter 6 Critical Analysis Paper Although there were a number of speeches to choose from for this exercise, “The Message to Grassroots”, by Malcolm X, grabbed my attention right away.
Initially it was the verity the he was a black man and he was Muslim, but more. Tina Clark Comm 03/25/ Chapter 6 Critical Analysis Paper Although there were a number of speeches to choose from for this exercise, “The Message to Grassroots”, by Malcolm X, grabbed my attention right away.
5 reviews of Grass Roots Property Management "Stacy is the best! She helped me every step of the way in renting my dream apartment in downtown Nevada City. Im not sure what was happening at CRPM in to cause the bad reviews. My experience /5(5). The characters of Roots show how the movie is very similar to the book.
The characters in the movie are made to act more affectionately by the director. He wants to show how loving the characters are and how their family is caring and affectionate. Essays Related to Roots analysis. 1. Effect of Regenerated Roots and Shoots/5(5). The grass-roots theory bacame a protective ideology.
The TVA was created as a grass-roots attempt of a federal organization deeply wedded to local organizations.
However, this threatened other federal organizations (Dept of Agriculture, Dept of Interior). who have resisted further attempts to repeat this type of federal structure. The author charts the roots of the marijuana movement back to the mids when a San Francisco-based grass-roots cannabis activist "politely asked to be arrested for smoking pot," an offense that happened to be a felony in California at the time.