Used within the humanities including English, history, communication, etc. Used within the field of history Writing Help Having trouble with getting started on your paper?
Below are standard formats and examples for basic bibliographic information recommended by the American Psychological Association APA.
For more information on the APA format, see http: Basics Your list of works cited should begin at the end of the paper on a new page with the centered title, References.
Alphabetize the entries in your list by the author's last name, using the letter-by-letter system ignore spaces and other punctuation. Only the initials of the first and middle names are given.
If the author's name is unknown, alphabetize by the title, ignoring any A, An, or The. For dates, spell out the names of months in the text of your paper, but abbreviate them in the list of works cited, except for May, June, and July.
Use either the day-month-year style 22 July or the month-day-year style July 22, and be consistent. With the month-day-year style, be sure to add a comma after the year unless another punctuation mark goes there. When reports were written on typewriters, the names of publications were underlined because most typewriters had no way to print italics.
If you write a bibliography by hand, you should still underline the names of publications. But, if you use a computer, then publication names should be in italics as they are below.
Always check with your instructor regarding their preference of using italics or underlining. Our examples use italics.
Capitalization, Abbreviation, and Punctuation The APA guidelines specify using sentence-style capitalization for the titles of books or articles, so you should capitalize only the first word of a title and subtitle.
The exceptions to this rule would be periodical titles and proper names in a title which should still be capitalized. The periodical title is run in title case, and is followed by the volume number which, with the title, is also italicized. If there are more than six authors, list only the first one and use et al.
Place the date of publication in parentheses immediately after the name of the author. Place a period after the closing parenthesis. Do not italicize, underline, or put quotes around the titles of shorter works within longer works.
Format Examples Books Format: Author's last name, first initial. Vanishing wildlife of North America.This resource offers examples for the general format of APA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the reference page. Citation Style Chart A handy side-by-side comparison of APA, MLA and Chicago styles.
Ph. D. theses: follow the title with “Unpublished doctoral thesis/dissertation,” for example Healey () and Hood () Master's theses: Use “Unpublished master's thesis;” the rest of the reference is like that of a Ph.
D. thesis in print format. Some examples of unpublished sources may include manuscripts accepted for publication but still "in-press," data from an unpublished study, letters, manuscripts in preparation, memos, personal communications (including e-mails), and raw data.
Thesis/Dissertation – APA Reference List Capitalization The document title is in sentence case – Only the first word and proper nouns in the title are capitalized. How do you format a bibliography in APA Style ®?
APA Style ® calls for a list of references instead of a bibliography. The requirements of a reference list are that all references cited in the text of a paper must be listed alphabetically by first author's last name in the list of references and that all references listed must be cited within.
Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and creativity: An investigation into their relationship (Unpublished doctoral thesis). University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand.
University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand.