Soil degradation, therefore, poses a threat to food security, as it reduces yield, forces farmers to use more inputs, and may eventually lead to soil abandonment. Unfortunately, the importance of preserving soil health appears to be overlooked by policy makers. In this paper, I first briefly introduce the present situation concerning agricultural production, natural resources, soil degradation, land use and the challenge ahead, to show how these issues are strictly interwoven.
Calder's Updates, May 3, "The Sun makes fantastic natural experiments" Henrik Svensmark says, "that allow us to test our ideas about its effects on the Earth's climate".
Most dramatic are the events called Forbush decreases. Ejections of gas from the Sun, carrying magnetic fields, can suddenly cut the influx of cosmic rays coming to the Earth from exploded stars.
According to the Svensmark hypothesis, cosmic rays seed the formation of low clouds, so there should be a reduction in the Earth's low cloud cover in the aftermath of a Forbush decrease.
With the right tracking skills, the Copenhagen team confirmed all their expectations about the Forbush decreases. Combined data for the five strongest Forbush decreases since show a loss of fine aerosols from the atmosphere, especially about 5 days after the cosmic ray minimum red curve.
The first of the graphics shows a temporary shortage of fine aerosols, chemical specks in the air that normally grow until water vapour can condense on them, so seeding the liquid water droplets of low-level clouds.
The remaining three graphs display the observable loss of the clouds that would have been seeded if the aerosols had survived to do their job.
Three different kinds of satellite observations tell the same story. Cosmic rays continuously promote the formation of micro-clusters of sulphuric acid and water molecules, but initially these are far too small to be detectable by remote observation.
After growing routinely over a number of days the invisible specks floating in the air influence the normal colour of sunlight as seen from the ground, by scattering away its violet light. Conversely, a shortage of fine aerosols after a shortage of cosmic rays should make the Sun appear abnormally bright in at the violet end of the spectrum.
As the graphs above show, all of these observational data sets showed much the same pattern of events after the strongest Forbush decreases sincenamely a decrease in liquid water clouds that reached its lowest point six to nine days after the minimum count of cosmic rays.
As for the magnitude of the impact on cloud cover, it was huge. The water remains there in vapour form, but unlike cloud droplets it does not block sunlight trying to warm the ocean.
From solar activity to cosmic ray ionization to aerosols and liquid-water clouds, a causal chain appears to operate on a global scale. Although they are too short-lived to have a lasting effect on the climate, the Forbush decreases dramatize the cosmic climate mechanism that works more patiently during the year solar cycle.
When the Sun becomes more active, the decline in low-altitude cosmic radiation is greater than that seen in most Forbush events, and the loss of low cloud cover persists for long enough to warm the world.
That explains the alternations of warming and cooling seen in the lower atmosphere and in the oceans during solar cycles. And the overall increase in solar activity during the 20th Century implies a loss of low clouds sufficient to explain most of the "global warming".
Noor van Andel,climategate. It has been proposed that galactic cosmic rays may influence the Earth's climate by affecting cloud formation.Abstract: Soil health, along with water supply, is the most valuable resource for humans, as human life depends on the soil’s generosity.
Soil degradation, therefore, poses a threat to food security, as it reduces yield, forces farmers to use more inputs, and may eventually lead to soil abandonment. Claiming that climate change is a plot to steal American freedom is rather tame by Heartland standards.
Over the course of this two-day conference, I will learn that Obama’s campaign promise to. The Centre for Food Policy at City University London researches and educates on how policy-making processes work and how they reflect and shape the nature of food supply and consumption.
Culture and Climate Change: Scenarios focuses on the imagining and representation of climate change scenarios.
The use of scenarios in the context of climate change is widespread - in business, in climate policy, climate modelling and climate adaptation planning.
Food production is fundamental to our existence, yet we are using up the world's supply of phosphorus, a critical ingredient in growing food. Today, phosphorus is mostly obtained from mined rock phosphate and is often combined in mineral fertilizers with sulphuric acid, nitrogen, and potassium.
ENCYCLICAL LETTER LAUDATO SI’ OF THE HOLY FATHER FRANCIS ON CARE FOR OUR COMMON HOME. 1. “LAUDATO SI’, mi’ Signore” – “Praise be to you, my Lord”.