Liberal Theory Essay Liberal Theory Essay Since its emergence in early modern Europe, the liberal tradition of political thought has spawned three major families of theory. The oldest, going back to the seventeenth century or earlier, comprises a set of ideas about political institutions. A second family, which originated in the eighteenth century and reached a zenith of sorts in the nineteenth, focuses on economic arrangements and social relations. The subject of the third family of theories is the normative principles used to evaluate the other, more concrete subjects that are of interest to liberal theorists.
He was educated at the Royal Highschool in Stuttgart from and steeped in both the classics and the literature of the European Enlightenment.
In Hegel received an M. Shortly after graduation, Hegel took a post as tutor to a wealthy Swiss family in Berne from During this time he wrote unpublished essays on religion which display a certain radical tendency of thought in his critique of orthodox religion. With the closing of the University, due to the victory of the French in Prussia, Hegel had to seek employment elsewhere and so he took a job as editor of a newspaper in Bamberg, Bavaria in Die Bamberger Zeitung followed by a move to Nuremberg in where Hegel became headmaster of a preparatory school Gymnasiumroughly equivalent to a high school, and also taught philosophy to the students there until During this time Hegel married, had children, and published his Science of Logic Wissenschaft der Logik in three volumes.
In he became Professor of Philosophy at the University of Berlin, through the invitation of the Prussion minister von Altenstein who had introduced many liberal reforms in Prussia until the fall of Napoleonand Hegel taught there until he died in Hegel lectured on various topics in philosophy, most notably on history, art, religion, and the history of philosophy and he became quite famous and influential.
He held public positions as a member of the Royal Examination Commission of the Province of Brandenberg and also as a councellor in the Ministry of Education. In he published the Philosophy of Right Philosophie des Rechts and in was given the honor of being elected Rector of the University.
Political Writings Apart from his philosophical works on history, society, and the state, Hegel wrote several political tracts most of which were not published in his lifetime but which are significant enough in connection to the theoretical writings to deserve some mention.
In it Hegel expresses the view that the constitutional structure of Wurtemberg requires fundamental reform. He condemns the absolutist rule of Duke Ferdinand along with the narrow traditionalism and legal positivism of his officials and welcomes the convening of the Estates Assembly, while disagreeing with the method of election in the Diet.
In contrast to the existing system of oligarchic privilege, Hegel argues that the Diet needs to be based on popular election through local town councils, although this should not be done by granting suffrage to an uneducated multitude.
The essay ends inconclusively on the appropriate method of political representation. A quite long piece of about pages, The German Constitution Die Verfassung Deutchlands was written and revised by Hegel between and and was not published until after his death in This piece provides an analysis and critique of the constitution of the German Empire with the main theme being that the Empire is a thing of the past and that appeals for a unified German state are anachronistic.
Hegel finds a certain hypocrisy in German thinking about the Empire and a gap between theory and practice in the German constitution. Germany was no longer a state governed by law but rather a plurality of independent political entities with disparate practices.
Hegel stresses the need to recognize that the realities of the modern state necessitate a strong public authority along with a populace that is free and unregimented. The principle of government in the modern world is constitutional monarchy, the potentialities of which can be seen in Austria and Prussia.
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Hegel ends the essay on an uncertain note with the idea that Germany as a whole could be saved only by some Machiavellian genius. Hegel sided with King Frederick and criticized the Estates as being reactionary in their appeal to old customary laws and feudal property rights.Emergence of Economic, Social and Political Ideas.
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