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Making Measurements What light source should I use for illumination? This will really depend on the molecule or substance you want to measure. Chromophores are substances that absorb visible light, giving them a colored appearance. These can be conveniently measured with visible light.
Not all molecules, however, absorb in the visible. Transitions between different electronic energy states often require high-energy, shorter-wavelength light in the ultraviolet or visible. Vibrational energy level transitions, on the other hand, tend to be at longer wavelengths in the near-infrared and infrared hence the popularity of IR and Raman spectroscopy for chemical identification.
The electronic transitions that give rise to absorption spectra are almost always overlaid with vibrational and rotational states of the same molecule, making the peaks typically broad. Use of a light source that covers only the wavelength range of interest will help reduce stray light, which is Ocean energy and how it improves important for higher absorbance readings.
The broad, smoothly varying output of a tungsten halogen light source is ideal for absorption at visible wavelengths.
The LS-1 is the most economical, and comes in long-lifetime and rack mounted versions. The HL has very similar spectral output, and has additional shuttered and high power versions.
The bluLoop is an LED-based light source with four different bulbs to yield balanced spectral output over the visible range and greater intensity at blue wavelengths. A deuterium and tungsten based light source has a broad, smoothly varying spectrum and stable output from to nm, making it well suited to most absorbance measurements.
Since its output comes from two different bulbs, the UV and visible portions of the spectrum can be used separately to reduce stray light and optimize signal to noise. The DH comes in a shuttered version for light-sensitive samples, and in a balanced version where the strong deuterium emission line at nm is attenuated.
A xenon light source would not usually be recommended for absorbance measurements, as it has a jagged, pulsed spectrum, making averaging and boxcar smoothing absolutely necessary to get good quality measurements.
It also features the ability to switch the visible portion off to focus on UV wavelengths and reduce stray light.
Even though intensity decreases at the longer wavelengths, this effect is compensated by higher sensitivity of the detectors in our NIR spectrometers at those wavelengths.
The Vivo NIR light source is also a tungsten halogen light source, and uses four spatially separated bulbs to avoid overheating the sample.
What is the best sampling optic for my measurement? The most common way to measure the absorbance of a solution is in a standard 1 cm pathlength cuvette, whether it be a disposable plastic UV-VIS cuvette or a high-quality quartz cuvette.
This is typically a good pathlength unless the sample happens to be very high or very low concentration. If extinction coefficient is being measured, it is very important to use a high-quality quartz cuvette for which the pathlength is accurately known. What is the optical density of the sample?
The OD of the sample directly affects the pathlength needed for measurement. The more optically dense the sample, the shorter the pathlength needs to be. On the other hand, low OD solutions require a longer pathlength, such as a 10 cm cuvette holder or a custom cuvette in a variable pathlength cuvette holder.
For extremely dilute solutions, an LPC longpass flow cell with 50 to cm pathlength may be required. What is the sample volume? The amount of sample to be measured also affects the choice of sampling accessory.
Is the sample a liquid or a gas? Gases can pose a problem, as their greatly reduced density requires either a highly absorptive sample or extremely long pathlength. Depending on the sample, a 10 cm pathlength may be sufficient, achieved using a CUV-UV or variable pathlength cuvette holder with cuvette, or simply by placing an adjustable collimating lens and cuvette holder directly in the gas to be measured.
Where will the measurement be made? If the measurement needs to be made in situ, like in a process stream or within a reaction chamber, a transmission dip probe may be useful.
It looks like a reflection probe, but with a mirror at the end of a spacer to reflect light back into the probe after traversing the sample solution twice. These are available with different fiber diameters TRT, TRT, TP and in different materials for use in a range of chemical solutions and environments, including industrial process applications TI Does the sample require continuous flow?Have peace of mind knowing your family will be protected for years to come using the Metal Sales Classic Rib Steel Roof Panel in Ocean pfmlures.com: $ The Power of Knowledge Engineering Ocean energy solutions from SKF Improving reliability, availability and maintainability of tidal and wave machines.
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Absorbance spectroscopy is the most widely used spectroscopic technique for studying liquids and gases due to its simplicity, accuracy, and ease of use. Shop Soda, Juice & Energy Drinks at Staples. Choose from our wide selection of Soda, Juice & Energy Drinks and get fast & free shipping on select orders.