A Formula for the Perfect Position Paper: As a young and eager new delegate, I used to put all of my effort into writing a perfect position paper, spending weeks compiling every fact I could about the topics. In short, I found myself spending hours on end just sifting through the information I uncovered in my research and constructing it into a paper. While it made for a formidable amount of knowledge, as I advanced in my high school tenure and became more and more busy, this method of research became increasingly impractical.
Top of Page Describe the organism s used in the study. This includes giving the 1 source supplier or where and how the orgranisms were collected2 typical size weight, length, etc3 how they were handled, fed, and housed before the experiment, 4 how they were handled, fed, and housed during the experiment.
In genetics studies include the strains or genetic stocks used. For some studies, age may be an important factor. For example, did you use mouse pups or adults? Seedlings or mature plants? Describe the site where your field study was conducted.
The description must include both physical and biological characteristics of the site pertinant to the study aims. Include the date s of the study e. Location data must be as precise as possible: When possible, give the actual latitude and longitude position of the site: It is often a good idea to include a map labeled as a Figure showing the study location in relation to some larger more recognizable geographic area.
Someone else should be able to go to the exact location of your study site if they want to repeat or check your work, or just visit your study area. For laboratory studies you need not report the date and location of the study UNLESS it is necessary information for someone to have who might wish to repeat your work or use the same facility.
Most often it is not.
If you have performed experiments at a particular location or lab because it is the only place to do it, or one of a few, then you should note that in your methods and identify the lab or facility. Top of Page Describe your experimental design clearly. Be sure to include the hypotheses you tested, controls, treatments, variables measured, how many replicates you had, what you actually measured, what form the data take, etc.
Always identify treatments by the variable or treatment name, NOT by an ambiguous, generic name or number e. When your paper includes more than one experiment, use subheadings to help organize your presentation by experiment.
A general experimental design worksheet is available to help plan your experiments in the core courses. Describe the procedures for your study in sufficient detail that other scientists could repeat your work to verify your findings.
Foremost in your description should be the "quantitative" aspects of your study - the masses, volumes, incubation times, concentrations, etc.
When using standard lab or field methods and instrumentation, it is not always necessary to explain the procedures e. You may want to identify certain types of equipment by vendor name and brand or category e. It is appropriate to report, parenthetically, the source vendor and catalog number for reagents used, e.
Always make sure to describe any modifications you have made of a standard or published method. Very frequently the experimental design and data collection procedures for an experiment cannot be separated and must be integrated together.Overview.
The instructions provided here are for a research article or a research report (generally these guidelines follow the formatting guidelines of the American Psychological Association documented in Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 4th Edition).Please consult the specific guidelines that are required by the publisher for the type of document you are producing.
How to Write a Research Paper.
What is a research paper? A research paper is a piece of academic writing based on its author’s original research on a particular topic, and the analysis and interpretation of the research findings. The Process f Research Writing Chapter 12, Citing Your Research Using MLA or APA Style, 2 Steven D.
Krause | pfmlures.com | Spring 1. Select a general topic that interests you in some way.. 2.
List key words to help you look up information about the topic.. 3.
Go to an encyclopedia, or other reference source, to get an overview of the topic.. 4. Make source cards for whatever sources you will use for information.. 5. In the books citation, note the following: abbreviation of authors first name (one or both initials ok); capitalize title as if it was a sentence; the title is not underlined (contrary to literary format).
A content note generally contains useful information and explanations that do not fit into the primary text itself. Content notes may be given as footnotes or endnotes or even a combination of both footnotes and endnotes.
Such content notes may themselves contain a style of parenthetical referencing.