The justifications for affirmative action

American Association of University Professors Presenting with:

The justifications for affirmative action

Affirmative action in China There is affirmative action in education for minority nationalities. This may equate to lowering minimum requirements for the National University Entrance Examination, which is a mandatory exam for all students to enter university. Israel[ edit ] A class-based affirmative action policy was incorporated into the admission practices of the four most selective universities in Israel during the early to mids.

In evaluating the eligibility of applicants, neither their financial status nor their national or ethnic origins are considered. The emphasis, rather, is on structural disadvantages, especially neighborhood socioeconomic status and high school rigor, although several individual hardships are also weighed.

This policy made the four institutions, especially the echelons at the most selective departments, more diverse than they otherwise would have been. In the negotiation for status as worthy peers, emphasizing gender signals that a woman is an "imposter", someone who does not rightfully belong in the position she is claiming to fill.

This suggests that affirmative action can have applications for different groups in Israel. Reservation in India Reservation in India is a form of affirmative action designed to improve the well-being of backward and under-represented communities defined primarily by their caste.

The justifications for affirmative action

Malaysia provides affirmative action to the majority because in general, the Malays have lower incomes than the Chinese, who have traditionally been involved in businesses and industries, but who were also general migrant workers.

Sri Lanka[ edit ] In the Standardization policy of Sri Lankan universities was introduced as an affirmative action program for students from areas which had lower rates of education than other areas due to missionary activity in the north and east, which essentially were the Tamil areas.

Successive governments cultivated a historical myth after the colonial powers had left that the British had practised communal favouritism towards Christians and the minority Tamil community for the entire years they had controlled Sri Lanka. However, the Sinhalese in fact benefitted from trade and plantation cultivations over the rest of the other groups and their language and culture as well as the religion of Buddhism was fostered and made into mediums for schools over the Tamil language, which did not have the same treatment and Tamils learned English instead as there was no medium for Tamil until near independence.

The British sending the missionaries to the north and east was for the protection of the Sinhalese and in fact showed favouritism to the majority group instead of the minorities to maintain trading relationships and benefits from them.

The Controversy Engaged

The Tamils, out of this random benefit from learning English and basic education excelled and flourished and were able to take many civil service jobs to the chagrin of the Sinhalese. The myth of Divide and Rule is untrue. The policy, were it not implemented would have prevented the civil wars ahead as the policies had no basis and in fact is an example of discrimination against the Tamil ethnic group.

In addition to these linguistic quotas, women may get preferential treatment in recruitment for certain public sector jobs if there is a gender imbalance in the field. France[ edit ] No distinctions based on race, religion or sex are allowed under the French Constitution.

Some schools, in neighborhoods labeled "Priority Education Zones", are granted more funds than the others.

The justifications for affirmative action

Students from these schools also benefit from special policies in certain institutions such as Sciences Po. After the Sarkozy election, a new attempt in favour of Arab-French students was made, but Sarkozy did not gain enough political support to change the French constitution.

However, some French schools do implement affirmative action in that they are obligated to take a certain number of students from impoverished families. All appointments of males as directors will be invalid as long as the quota is not met, and monetary penalties may apply for other directors.

There are programs stating that if men and women have equal qualifications, women have to be preferred for a job; moreover, the disabled should be preferred to non-disabled people.constitutionally permissible justifications for affirmative action programs and the methods colleges and universities, may use to create diversity that may be permissible under the Fourth Circuit's opinion.

The main justification for affirmative action is atonement for past misdeeds, or an attempt at a public apology for the ‘heinous crimes’ of slavery, segregation, and also mistreatment and marginalization of women.

affirmative action than the other traditional arguments. In developing his description and justification for affirmative action at Harvard, Cox relied on a history of embracing diversity that began in the.

From inequality to equality: Evaluating normative justifications for affirmative action as racial redress We investigate whether, and to what extent, Nozick’s entitlement theory and Rawls’s theory of justice as fairness can normatively ground affirmative action policies.

Aug 30,  · Blum is a longtime opponent of affirmative action and voting rights laws who has recruited plaintiffs and raised millions of dollars from conservative groups. His group filed the Harvard suit in Jun 24,  · WASHINGTON — The Supreme Court on Thursday rejected a challenge to a race-conscious admissions program at the University of Texas at Austin, handing supporters of affirmative action a major victory.

The decision, Fisher v.

Moritz College of Lawhome - Ohio State Law Journal