Genocide debate[ edit ] The concept of genocide was defined in by Raphael Lemkin. For Lemkin, genocide was broadly defined and included all attempts to destroy a specific ethnic group, whether strictly physical through mass killings, or cultural or psychological through oppression and destruction of indigenous ways of life. In this view, the concept of " manifest destiny " in the westward expansion from the eastern United States can be seen as contributing to genocide. However, such deaths were seen, by the Puritans particularly, as the Lord having "cleared our title to what we possess.
Other writers, however, contend that European and U.
To a significant extent, disagreements about the pervasiveness of genocide in the history of the post-Columbian Western Hemisphere, in general, and U.
Conservative definitions emphasize intentional actions and policies of governments that result in very large population losses, usually from direct killing. More liberal definitions call for less stringent criteria for intent, focusing more on outcomes.
They do not necessarily require direct sanction by state authorities; rather, they identify societal forces and actors. They also allow for several intersecting forces of destruction, including dispossession and disease. Because debates about genocide easily devolve into quarrels about definitions, an open-ended approach to the question of genocide that explores several phases and events provides the possibility of moving beyond the present stalemate.
However one resolves the question of genocide in American Indian history, it is important to recognize that European and U. These include violence resulting directly from settler expansion, intertribal violence frequently aggravated by colonial intrusionsenslavement, disease, alcohol, loss of land and resources, forced removals, and assaults on tribal religion, culture, and language.
The configuration and impact of these forces varied considerably in different times and places according to the goals of particular colonial projects and the capacities of colonial societies and institutions to pursue them. The capacity of Native people and communities to directly resist, blunt, or evade colonial invasions proved equally important.
Did the actions and policies of Europeans and U. Americans toward Indians qualify as genocide or not? Academics, students, citizens, in short, almost everyone has an opinion on the subject.
Some are certain that the answer to the question is yes, that the massive depopulation of indigenous America after was a clear-cut case of genocide.
Others, however, are equally certain that the answer is no, namely that European and U. American actions and policies toward Indians were at least sometimes deplorable but cannot be labeled as genocidal. This essay begins with the premise that the issue of genocide in American Indian history is far too complex to yield a simple yes-or-no answer.
The relevant history, after all, is a long one more than five hundred years involving hundreds of indigenous nations and several European and neo-European empires and imperial nation-states. While it would be absurd to reduce this history to any single category, genocide included, it would be reasonable to predict that genocide was a part of this history.
With this in mind, the essay invites readers to resist a tendency toward a quick or easy resolution of the question of genocide in American Indian history and to engage in an open-ended exploration. The object is not a definitive answer but a clarification of the issues. More than many debates, those about genocide often center on definitions.
Because of this fact, readers might expect an essay on genocide to begin by discussing various definitions of the term and related terms such as ethnic cleansing and cultural genocide and proceed either to argue for one definition as authoritative or to propose a new one.
This approach, however, would work against my objective of facilitating an open-ended exploration of the issue, and so a formal discussion of definitions will be deferred to the historiographical section at the end of this essay, though, as the essay develops, it will pause periodically to consider how specific events or phases might or might not be regarded as genocidal depending on definitions that have been or could be applied to them.
As will become apparent, debates about whether or not specific cases and phases qualify as genocide typically center on these issues: Virgin Soil Epidemics and Native Depopulation Discussions about genocide in the Americas often begin with the moment of initial contact between Europeans and Native people and emphasize the catastrophic impact of European diseases especially smallpox and measles for which Indians had no acquired immunity.
A standard estimate was 8 million for the entire hemisphere and 1 million north of the Rio Grande.Shutting Down Canada's Busiest Highway. For a moment there, I was worried they were cutting off Fort MacMurray; Ontario Provincial Police shut down Canada's busiest highway early Friday morning west of Kingston due to native protesters in the area, who had earlier blockaded a section of secondary highway and a stretch of nearby railway track .
Native American Essays; Native American Essays. Native Americans Analytical Essay.
Words | 5 Pages. In order to better understand if what happened to the Native Americans was genocide or not we need to get a clear definition of this word. According to the United Nations, genocide is, “Any of the following acts committed with intent.
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and how Native American history relates to this field. Historical contexts for Native American historiography, particularly the scholarship of Vine Deloria, Jr., are examined. In addition, the manifestation of some problematic trends in the field is detailed through the mordant debate between scholars of native America and the Jewish Holocaust.
Thesis Statement Student Examples These are student examples-- Some examples are better than others. Although people should be allowed guns for protection, the laws on gun control should be re.
The genocide of indigenous peoples is the mass destruction of entire communities of indigenous peoples.
Indigenous peoples are understood to be people whose historical and current territory has become occupied by colonial expansion, or the formation of a state by a dominant group such as a colonial power..
While the concept of genocide was .